Infectious diarrhea

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{{#if: | {{#if: | {{#if: | {{#if: 009.2| {{#if: | {{#if: | {{#if: | {{#if: | {{#if: search| {{#if: D004403| {{#if: |
Infectious diarrhea
Classification & external resources
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ICD-10 }}
ICD-9 009.2}}
ICD-O: }}
OMIM [6] }}
DiseasesDB [7] }}
MedlinePlus [8] }}
eMedicine search | topic list | search/diarrhea }} }}
MeSH D004403 }}
MeSH {{{MeshNumber}}}}}
See also Gastroenteritis and Enteritis

This may be defined as diarrhea that lasts less than three and a half weeksTemplate:Fact, and is also called enteritis.

Contents

Cause/Etiology

This can nearly always be presumed to be infective, although only in a minority of cases is this formally proven. The diarrhea is usually viral in origin, and is mostly caused by Norovirus, Rotavirus, Adenovirus, or Astrovirus.

The most common organisms found are Campylobacter (from animal products), Salmonella (also often from animal foodstuffs), Cryptosporidium (ditto), and Giardia lamblia (lives in water). Shigella dysentery is less common, and usually human in origin. Cholera is rare in Western countries. It is more common in travelers and is usually related to contaminated water (its ultimate source is probably sea water). Escherichia coli is probably a very common cause of diarrhea, especially Traveler's diarrhea, but it can be difficult to detect using current technology. The types of E. coli vary from area to area and country to country. Clostridium difficile is considered the most common cause of infectious diarrhea in hospitalized patients worldwide.[1]

Viruses, particularly rotavirus, are common in children. (Viral diarrhea is probably over-diagnosed by non-doctors). Norwalk virus can also cause these symptoms.

Toxins and food poisoning can cause diarrhea. These include staphylococcal toxin (often from milk products due to an infected wound in workers), and Bacillus cereus. Often "food poisoning" is really Salmonella infection. Diarrhea can also be caused by ingesting foods that contain indigestible material, for instance, escolar and olestra.

Parasites and worms sometimes cause diarrhea but are often accompanied by weight loss, irritability, rashes or anal itching. The most common is pinworm (mostly a nuisance rather than a severe medical illness). Other worms, such as hookworm, ascaria, and tapeworm are more medically significant and may cause weight loss, anemia, general unwellness and allergy problems. Amoebic dysentery due to Entamoeba histolytica is an important cause of bloody diarrhea in travelers and also sometimes in western countries

Diagnosis

In more severe cases, or where it is important to find the cause of the illness, stool cultures are instituted.

Among medical inpatients, the presence of fecal leukocytes can predict a "breach in the colonic mucosa (any infectious or inflammatory condition, blood in the stool, or acute vascular insufficiency)"[2]:

Treatment

With mild cases of acute diarrhea, it is often reasonable to reassure a patient, ensure adequate fluid intake, and wait and see.

Parasites (worms and amoeba) should always be treated with antimicrobial drugs.

Antimotility agents

Loperamide can reduce diarrhea in patients with shigella[3], but not in patients with traveler's diarrhea due to enterotoxigenic E. coli.[4]

A systematic review of randomized controlled trials found that loperamide may harm children less that 3 years old.

Antisecretory agents

A randomized controlled trial found that racecadotril, an enkephalinase inhibitor, may reduce the volume of watery diarrhea.[5]

Antibiotics

Norfloxacin can reduce the duration of acute diarrhea due to bacterial pathogens.[6] However, norfloxacin may prolong infectivity of patients with salmonella and cause resistant campylobacter.[6]

Prognosis

Acute infectious diarrhea usually lasts 7 days when not treated with antibiotics.[6] It is not uncommon for diarrhea to persist. Diarrhea due to some organisms may persist for years without significant long term illness. More commonly the diarrhea slowly ameliorates but the patient becomes a carrier (harbors the infection without illness). This is often an indication for treatment, especially in food workers or institution workers.

Salmonella is the most common persistent bacterial organism in humans.Template:Fact

References

  1. {{
    1. if: {{#if: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/c-difficile/ | {{#if: Clostridium difficile (C. difficile): Questions and Answers - Public Health Agency of Canada |1}}}}
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    | {{#if: {{#if: | {{#if: |1}}}} ||You must specify archiveurl = and archivedate = when using {{cite web}}. {{#if: ||}} }} }}{{#if: | {{#if: | [[{{{authorlink}}}|{{#if: | {{{last}}}{{#if: | , {{{first}}} }} | {{{author}}} }}]] | {{#if: | {{{last}}}{{#if: | , {{{first}}} }} | {{{author}}} }} }} }}{{#if: | {{#if: | ; {{{coauthors}}} }} }}{{#if: | {{#if: | ({{#ifeq:{{#time:Y-m-d|{{{date}}}}}|{{{date}}}|[[{{{date}}}]]|{{{date}}}}}) | {{#if: | {{#if: | ({{{month}}} {{{year}}}) | ({{{year}}}) }} }} |}} }}{{#if: | . }}{{ #if: | {{{editor}}}: }}{{#if: | {{#if: | {{#if: Clostridium difficile (C. difficile): Questions and Answers - Public Health Agency of Canada | [{{{archiveurl}}} Clostridium difficile (C. difficile): Questions and Answers - Public Health Agency of Canada] }}}} | {{#if: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/c-difficile/ | {{#if: Clostridium difficile (C. difficile): Questions and Answers - Public Health Agency of Canada | Clostridium difficile (C. difficile): Questions and Answers - Public Health Agency of Canada }}}} }}{{#if: | () }}{{#if: | ({{{language}}}) }}{{#if: | . ' }}{{#if: | {{{pages}}} }}{{#if: | . {{{publisher}}}{{#if: | | {{#if: || }} }} }}{{#if: ||{{#if: | ({{#ifeq:{{#time:Y-m-d|{{{date}}}}}|{{{date}}}|[[{{{date}}}]]|{{{date}}}}}) | {{#if: | {{#if: | ({{{month}}} {{{year}}}) | ({{{year}}}) }} }} }} }}.{{#if: | Archived from the original on [[{{{archivedate}}}]]. }}{{#if: | DOI:{{{doi}}}. }}{{#if: 2007-08-16 | Retrieved on 2007-08-16{{#if: | , [[{{{accessyear}}}]] }}. }}{{#if: | Retrieved on {{{accessmonthday}}}, {{{accessyear}}}. }}{{#if: | Retrieved on {{{accessdaymonth}}} {{{accessyear}}}. }}{{#if: |  “{{{quote}}}” }}
  2. {{#if:Granville LA, Cernoch P, Land GA, Davis JR |{{#if: |[[{{{authorlink}}}|{{#if: |{{{last}}}{{#if: |, {{{first}}} }} |Granville LA, Cernoch P, Land GA, Davis JR }}]] |{{#if: |{{{last}}}{{#if: |, {{{first}}} }} |Granville LA, Cernoch P, Land GA, Davis JR }} }} }}{{#if:Granville LA, Cernoch P, Land GA, Davis JR |{{#if: | ; {{{coauthors}}} }} }}{{#if: | ({{{date}}}) |{{#if:2004 |{{#if: | ({{{month}}} 2004) | (2004) }} }} }}{{#if:Granville LA, Cernoch P, Land GA, Davis JR | . }}{{#if:Granville LA, Cernoch P, Land GA, Davis JR2004 | }}{{#ifeq: | no | | {{#if: |“|"}} }}{{#if: |[{{{url}}} Performance assessment of the fecal leukocyte test for inpatients] |Performance assessment of the fecal leukocyte test for inpatients }}{{#ifeq: | no | | {{#if:|”|"}} }}{{#if: | (in {{{language}}}) }}{{#if: | ({{{format}}}) }}{{#if:J. Clin. Microbiol. |. J. Clin. Microbiol. }}{{#if:42 | 42 }}{{#if:3 | (3) }}{{#if:1254-6 |: 1254-6 }}{{#if: |. {{#if: |{{{location}}}: }}{{{publisher}}} }}{{#if: |. doi:[1] }}{{#if: |. ISSN {{{issn}}} }}{{#if:15004086 |. PMID 15004086 }}{{#if: |. Bibcode{{{bibcode}}} }}{{#if: |. OCLC {{{oclc}}} }}{{#if: |. {{{id}}} }}{{#if: |. Retrieved on [[{{{accessdate}}}]]{{#if: | , [[{{{accessyear}}}]] }} }}{{#if: | Retrieved on {{{accessmonthday}}}, {{{accessyear}}} }}{{#if: | Retrieved on {{{accessdaymonth}}} {{{accessyear}}} }}{{#if: |. [{{{laysummary}}} Lay summary]{{#if: | – {{{laysource}}}}} }}{{#if: | ([[{{{laydate}}}]]) }}.{{#if: | “{{{quote}}}” }}
  3. {{#if:Murphy GS, Bodhidatta L, Echeverria P, et al |{{#if: |[[{{{authorlink}}}|{{#if: |{{{last}}}{{#if: |, {{{first}}} }} |Murphy GS, Bodhidatta L, Echeverria P, et al }}]] |{{#if: |{{{last}}}{{#if: |, {{{first}}} }} |Murphy GS, Bodhidatta L, Echeverria P, et al }} }} }}{{#if:Murphy GS, Bodhidatta L, Echeverria P, et al |{{#if: | ; {{{coauthors}}} }} }}{{#if: | ({{{date}}}) |{{#if:1993 |{{#if: | ({{{month}}} 1993) | (1993) }} }} }}{{#if:Murphy GS, Bodhidatta L, Echeverria P, et al | . }}{{#if:Murphy GS, Bodhidatta L, Echeverria P, et al1993 | }}{{#ifeq: | no | | {{#if: |“|"}} }}{{#if: |[{{{url}}} Ciprofloxacin and loperamide in the treatment of bacillary dysentery] |Ciprofloxacin and loperamide in the treatment of bacillary dysentery }}{{#ifeq: | no | | {{#if:|”|"}} }}{{#if: | (in {{{language}}}) }}{{#if: | ({{{format}}}) }}{{#if:Ann. Intern. Med. |. Ann. Intern. Med. }}{{#if:118 | 118 }}{{#if:8 | (8) }}{{#if:582-6 |: 582-6 }}{{#if: |. {{#if: |{{{location}}}: }}{{{publisher}}} }}{{#if: |. doi:[2] }}{{#if: |. ISSN {{{issn}}} }}{{#if:8452323 |. PMID 8452323 }}{{#if: |. Bibcode{{{bibcode}}} }}{{#if: |. OCLC {{{oclc}}} }}{{#if: |. {{{id}}} }}{{#if: |. Retrieved on [[{{{accessdate}}}]]{{#if: | , [[{{{accessyear}}}]] }} }}{{#if: | Retrieved on {{{accessmonthday}}}, {{{accessyear}}} }}{{#if: | Retrieved on {{{accessdaymonth}}} {{{accessyear}}} }}{{#if: |. [{{{laysummary}}} Lay summary]{{#if: | – {{{laysource}}}}} }}{{#if: | ([[{{{laydate}}}]]) }}.{{#if: | “{{{quote}}}” }}
  4. {{#if:Taylor DN, Sanchez JL, Candler W, Thornton S, McQueen C, Echeverria P |{{#if: |[[{{{authorlink}}}|{{#if: |{{{last}}}{{#if: |, {{{first}}} }} |Taylor DN, Sanchez JL, Candler W, Thornton S, McQueen C, Echeverria P }}]] |{{#if: |{{{last}}}{{#if: |, {{{first}}} }} |Taylor DN, Sanchez JL, Candler W, Thornton S, McQueen C, Echeverria P }} }} }}{{#if:Taylor DN, Sanchez JL, Candler W, Thornton S, McQueen C, Echeverria P |{{#if: | ; {{{coauthors}}} }} }}{{#if: | ({{{date}}}) |{{#if:1991 |{{#if: | ({{{month}}} 1991) | (1991) }} }} }}{{#if:Taylor DN, Sanchez JL, Candler W, Thornton S, McQueen C, Echeverria P | . }}{{#if:Taylor DN, Sanchez JL, Candler W, Thornton S, McQueen C, Echeverria P1991 | }}{{#ifeq: | no | | {{#if: |“|"}} }}{{#if: |[{{{url}}} Treatment of travelers' diarrhea: ciprofloxacin plus loperamide compared with ciprofloxacin alone. A placebo-controlled, randomized trial] |Treatment of travelers' diarrhea: ciprofloxacin plus loperamide compared with ciprofloxacin alone. A placebo-controlled, randomized trial }}{{#ifeq: | no | | {{#if:|”|"}} }}{{#if: | (in {{{language}}}) }}{{#if: | ({{{format}}}) }}{{#if:Ann. Intern. Med. |. Ann. Intern. Med. }}{{#if:114 | 114 }}{{#if:9 | (9) }}{{#if:731-4 |: 731-4 }}{{#if: |. {{#if: |{{{location}}}: }}{{{publisher}}} }}{{#if: |. doi:[3] }}{{#if: |. ISSN {{{issn}}} }}{{#if:2012354 |. PMID 2012354 }}{{#if: |. Bibcode{{{bibcode}}} }}{{#if: |. OCLC {{{oclc}}} }}{{#if: |. {{{id}}} }}{{#if: |. Retrieved on [[{{{accessdate}}}]]{{#if: | , [[{{{accessyear}}}]] }} }}{{#if: | Retrieved on {{{accessmonthday}}}, {{{accessyear}}} }}{{#if: | Retrieved on {{{accessdaymonth}}} {{{accessyear}}} }}{{#if: |. [{{{laysummary}}} Lay summary]{{#if: | – {{{laysource}}}}} }}{{#if: | ([[{{{laydate}}}]]) }}.{{#if: | “{{{quote}}}” }}
  5. {{#if:Salazar-Lindo E, Santisteban-Ponce J, Chea-Woo E, Gutierrez M |{{#if: |[[{{{authorlink}}}|{{#if: |{{{last}}}{{#if: |, {{{first}}} }} |Salazar-Lindo E, Santisteban-Ponce J, Chea-Woo E, Gutierrez M }}]] |{{#if: |{{{last}}}{{#if: |, {{{first}}} }} |Salazar-Lindo E, Santisteban-Ponce J, Chea-Woo E, Gutierrez M }} }} }}{{#if:Salazar-Lindo E, Santisteban-Ponce J, Chea-Woo E, Gutierrez M |{{#if: | ; {{{coauthors}}} }} }}{{#if: | ({{{date}}}) |{{#if:2000 |{{#if: | ({{{month}}} 2000) | (2000) }} }} }}{{#if:Salazar-Lindo E, Santisteban-Ponce J, Chea-Woo E, Gutierrez M | . }}{{#if:Salazar-Lindo E, Santisteban-Ponce J, Chea-Woo E, Gutierrez M2000 | }}{{#ifeq: | no | | {{#if: |“|"}} }}{{#if: |[{{{url}}} Racecadotril in the treatment of acute watery diarrhea in children] |Racecadotril in the treatment of acute watery diarrhea in children }}{{#ifeq: | no | | {{#if:|”|"}} }}{{#if: | (in {{{language}}}) }}{{#if: | ({{{format}}}) }}{{#if:N. Engl. J. Med. |. N. Engl. J. Med. }}{{#if:343 | 343 }}{{#if:7 | (7) }}{{#if:463-7 |: 463-7 }}{{#if: |. {{#if: |{{{location}}}: }}{{{publisher}}} }}{{#if: |. doi:[4] }}{{#if: |. ISSN {{{issn}}} }}{{#if:10944563 |. PMID 10944563 }}{{#if: |. Bibcode{{{bibcode}}} }}{{#if: |. OCLC {{{oclc}}} }}{{#if: |. {{{id}}} }}{{#if: |. Retrieved on [[{{{accessdate}}}]]{{#if: | , [[{{{accessyear}}}]] }} }}{{#if: | Retrieved on {{{accessmonthday}}}, {{{accessyear}}} }}{{#if: | Retrieved on {{{accessdaymonth}}} {{{accessyear}}} }}{{#if: |. [{{{laysummary}}} Lay summary]{{#if: | – {{{laysource}}}}} }}{{#if: | ([[{{{laydate}}}]]) }}.{{#if: | “{{{quote}}}” }}
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 {{#if:Wiström J, Jertborn M, Ekwall E, et al |{{#if: |[[{{{authorlink}}}|{{#if: |{{{last}}}{{#if: |, {{{first}}} }} |Wiström J, Jertborn M, Ekwall E, et al }}]] |{{#if: |{{{last}}}{{#if: |, {{{first}}} }} |Wiström J, Jertborn M, Ekwall E, et al }} }} }}{{#if:Wiström J, Jertborn M, Ekwall E, et al |{{#if: | ; {{{coauthors}}} }} }}{{#if: | ({{{date}}}) |{{#if:1992 |{{#if: | ({{{month}}} 1992) | (1992) }} }} }}{{#if:Wiström J, Jertborn M, Ekwall E, et al | . }}{{#if:Wiström J, Jertborn M, Ekwall E, et al1992 | }}{{#ifeq: | no | | {{#if: |“|"}} }}{{#if: |[{{{url}}} Empiric treatment of acute diarrheal disease with norfloxacin. A randomized, placebo-controlled study. Swedish Study Group] |Empiric treatment of acute diarrheal disease with norfloxacin. A randomized, placebo-controlled study. Swedish Study Group }}{{#ifeq: | no | | {{#if:|”|"}} }}{{#if: | (in {{{language}}}) }}{{#if: | ({{{format}}}) }}{{#if:Ann. Intern. Med. |. Ann. Intern. Med. }}{{#if:117 | 117 }}{{#if:3 | (3) }}{{#if:202-8 |: 202-8 }}{{#if: |. {{#if: |{{{location}}}: }}{{{publisher}}} }}{{#if: |. doi:[5] }}{{#if: |. ISSN {{{issn}}} }}{{#if:1616214 |. PMID 1616214 }}{{#if: |. Bibcode{{{bibcode}}} }}{{#if: |. OCLC {{{oclc}}} }}{{#if: |. {{{id}}} }}{{#if: |. Retrieved on [[{{{accessdate}}}]]{{#if: | , [[{{{accessyear}}}]] }} }}{{#if: | Retrieved on {{{accessmonthday}}}, {{{accessyear}}} }}{{#if: | Retrieved on {{{accessdaymonth}}} {{{accessyear}}} }}{{#if: |. [{{{laysummary}}} Lay summary]{{#if: | – {{{laysource}}}}} }}{{#if: | ([[{{{laydate}}}]]) }}.{{#if: | “{{{quote}}}” }}
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